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NECO Agricultural Science Syllabus

Writing Agricultural Science in your NECO O’level exams? Download the recommended syllabus to excel in your exams. Take the first step in studying smart today.

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About NECO Agricultural Science Syllabus

Do you want to ace Agricultural  Science in your upcoming NECO Agricultural Science examination? Search no more, you are at the right place. We will guide you on how to ace your exam with flying colours by giving you insights through the syllabus, marking guide and sections.

Agricultural Science is a hands-on discipline that focuses on both theoretical knowledge and practical skills, in this Agricultural Science NECO examination you will be expected to demonstrate your understanding of all the topics outlined in the syllabus during the examination.

This syllabus should be carefully studied, and timetables should be drafted on how to cover those topics so that there should be enough time to revisit them, and also practise some past questions.  

To succeed. Consistent preparation is the key. You are expected to create a study schedule, allowing ample time to cover all topics, revisit them, and practice past questions.

Marking Guide & Sections

As the saying goes “Proper preparation prevents poor performance” More often than not it is our lack of preparation that stops us from performing our best, rather than lack of ability. This examination syllabus will familiarise you with the marking pattern for this subject, preparing you for what to expect in your examination.

The NECO Agricultural Science examination is divided into two “sections”.  You will be required to write three papers. Paper 1,2, and 3, with Paper 1 and 2 being a composite paper to be completed in one sitting. Let’s break down the exam structure:



Paper 1 is the first paper that will be written, it is designed to assess your understanding through fifty multiple-choice questions, and these questions are to be answered within 50 minutes for a total mark of 50. The questions set will evaluate your grasp of fundamental concepts and principles in Agricultural Science, so it is recommended to have a wide knowledge of this concept to secure your 50 marks.


Paper 2 focuses on the theoretical aspect, in the section you should be able to express yourself, it includes six essay questions, with each of these topics touching on topics from at least two teams outlined in the syllabus. You will be required to answer five questions within a time frame of 2 hours and 10 minutes, aiming for a total of 90 marks. 



Paper 3 will be a practical examination for school candidates and an alternative to practical assessment for private candidates. This paper consists of four questions, all of which must be answered within 1 ½ hours, with a total worth of 60 marks. In this” practical aspect” marks can be easily awarded and also it can be easily deducted. Proper attention must be given to the practical to avoid loss of marks because earning a high mark in “the” Agricultural Science practical examination will greatly affect your overall success.

The NECO Agricultural Science Syllabus

1BASIC CONCEPTS1.1 Meaning and importance of agriculture
1.2 Problems of agricultural development and possible solutions
1.3 Meaning and differences between subsistence and commercial agriculture
1.4 Roles of government in agricultural development
1.5 Role of non-governmental organizations in agricultural development
1.6 Agricultural laws and reforms
2AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY2.1 Meaning and importance of agricultural ecology
2.2 Land and its uses
2.3 Factors affecting land availability for agricultural purpose
2.4 Agro-allied industries and relationship between agriculture and industry
2.5 Environmental factors affecting crop and animal distribution and production
2.6 Rock formation
2.7 Soil formation and profile development
2.8 Types, composition and properties of soil
2.9 Plant nutrients and nutrient cycle
2.10 Irrigation
2.11 Drainage
2.12 Agricultural pollution
3.2 Farm machinery and implements
3.3 Maintenance practices and precautionary measures
3.4 Agricultural mechanization
3.5 Prospects of agricultural mechanization
3.6 Farm power
3.7 Farm surveying
3.8 Farm planning
3.9 Principles of farmstead planning
4CROP PRODUCTION4.1 Classification of crops
4.2 Husbandry of selected crops
4.3 Pasture and forage crops
4.4 Crop improvement
5FORESTRY5.1 Forest management
5.2 Agroforestry practices in West Africa
6ORNAMENTAL PLANTS6.1 Meaning and importance of ornamental plants
6.2 Common types of ornamental plants
6.3 Settings and location for planting ornamental plants
6.4 Methods of cultivating ornamental plants
6.5 Maintenance of ornamental plants
7CROP PROTECTION7.1 Diseases of crops
7.2 Pests of crops
7.3 Weeds
8ANIMAL PRODUCTION8.1 Types and classification of farm animals
8.2 Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
8.3 Animal reproduction
8.4 Environmental physiology
8.5 Livestock management
8.6 Animal nutrition
8.7 Rangeland and pasture management
8.8 Animal improvement
8.9 Animal health management
8.10 Aquaculture
8.11 Apiculture or bee keeping
9.2 Factors of production
9.3 Principles of demand
9.4 Principles of supply
9.5 Implications of demand and supply for agricultural production
9.6 Functions of a farm manager
9.7 Problems faced by farm managers
9.8 Agricultural finance
9.9 Farm records and accounts
9.10 Marketing of agricultural produce
9.11 Agricultural insurance
9.12 Agricultural extension
1.2 Soil profile
1.3 Rocks
1.4 Laboratory work on physical properties of soil
1.5 Laboratory work on chemical properties of soil
1.6 Irrigation and drainage
2.2 Tractor and animal drawn implement
2.3 Harvesting, processing and storage equipment
2.4 Farm tractor
2.5 Uses and maintenance of horticultural tools and implements.
2.6 Livestock and fishing equipment
2.7 Farm surveying equipment
3CROP PRODUCTION3.1 Seeds, seedlings, fruits and storage organs of crops.
3.2 Main pests and diseases of crops
3.3 Planting dates, seed rates, plant population and seed quality tests of the more
common local crop plants
3.4 Preparation of seedbeds, fertilizer application, mulching, use of pesticides,
watering, vegetative propagation, germination tests etc
3.5 Forest products and by-products
3.6 Methods of propagation of horticultural plants
3.7 Common weeds
4ANIMAL PRODUCTION4.1 Common breeds of animals and types of animals available in the locality
4.2 Major internal organs of farm animals, e.g. organs of the digestive system,
reproductive and excretory systems
4.3 Animal by-products
4.4 Animal feeds and feedstuffs and their local sources
4.5 Main pests and parasites of farm animals
4.6 Diseases of farm animals
4.7 Routine management practices in farm animals, e.g. selection of livestock and
poultry for breeding, culling, ear-notching, tattooing, horn or skin branding,
debeaking, dehorning, castration.
4.8 Fish harvesting and preservation

Recommended NECO Agricultural Science Textbooks

  1. C.K. et al (2014) Extension Modern Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools (2010), Extension Publication.
  2. Are, L. A et al (2010) Comprehensive Certificate Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools, University Press Plc.
  3. STAN (1999) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools, Lagos: Longman.
  4. Daramola A. M. Et al (1999) Exam Focus Agricultural Science for SSCE and JME
  5. Adeniyi, al (1999) Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination Agricultural Science, Ibadan: Evans.


How many sections are in the NECO Agricultural Science exam?

The NECO Agricultural Science exam is divided into two sections with papers 1 and 2 being in the first section and paper 3 in the second section as stated above.

What are the total hours allocated to write the Agricultural Science exam?

The total hours for the Agricultural Science exam is 4 hours and 30 minutes. Paper 1 questions should be answered within 50 minutes, while paper 2 questions should be answered within 2 hours and 10 minutes and paper 3 questions should be answered in 1 hour 30 minutes

What is the marking scheme for each paper?

Paper 1 is 50 multiple-choice questions to be answered within 50 minutes for 50 marks, paper 2 consists of six essay questions, with candidates required to answer five within 2 hours and 10 minutes for 9- marks, and paper 3 consists of four practical questions, to be completed within 1 ½ hours for 60 marks.

What topics should I focus on while preparing for the NECO Agricultural Science exam?

You should focus on topics such as crop cultivation, animal husbandry, agricultural economics, soil science, pest and disease management, and sustainable agricultural practices. It is essential to cover all areas outlined in the NECO Agricultural Science syllabus.

What are the objectives of the NECO Agricultural Science syllabus?

 The objectives of the NECO Agricultural Science syllabus are equipping students with practical skills and knowledge in Agriculture, fostering an appreciation for the importance of Agriculture in national development, promoting sustainable Agricultural practices, and preparing students for further studies or careers in Agricultural Science.

Are there practical components in the syllabus?

Yes, practical components are an essential part of the syllabus. You are expected to engage in practical activities such as crop cultivation, livestock management, soil analysis, pest control measures etc. To enhance your understanding and application of agricultural principles.

How can I effectively balance theory and practical study for the exam?

 To balance theory and practical study, you must allocate time for both aspects of the subjects. Ensure you understand theoretical concepts by studying textbooks and notes and then apply these concepts through practical activities like field trips, laboratory experiments, and farm visits.

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