SS1 Biology Scheme of Work

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About SS1 Biology Scheme of Work

In junior secondary school, Basic Science lays the foundational understanding of the natural world, covering essential concepts from physics, chemistry, and biology. Transitioning from Basic Science to Biology in Senior Secondary School 1 (SS1) shifts the focus to a more in-depth study of living organisms. 

While Basic Science offers a broad overview of various scientific disciplines and promotes general scientific literacy, SSS1 Biology delves into the specifics of life processes, including cell structure, genetic mechanisms, ecological relationships, and physiological functions. This progression enables students to expand on their basic knowledge and gain a deeper, more comprehensive grasp of biological sciences.

Through a blend of classroom instruction, laboratory experiments, and fieldwork, the Lagos state unified scheme of work for Biology helps SSS1 students gain a robust appreciation of the intricate and dynamic nature of life on Earth.

Assessment Guide

In senior secondary school 1, students are assessed in Biology based on the school’s prerogative. However, typically, they are evaluated through tests or quizzes (Continuous Assessment Tests), practical exercises, and end-of-term exams.

Grading follows a scale from A to F, with A representing excellent performance, typically scoring around 70% or 80%, and F indicating failure, usually below 50% or 45%.

SS1 First Term Scheme of Work for Biology

 Biology Scheme of Work for Senior Secondary Schools 1(SSS1)
 ClassS.S.S 1
 TermFirst Term
1SCIENCE OF LIVING THINGS1. Biology as a science 2. The scientific methods 3. Usefulness of biology
2RECOGNIZING LIVNING THINGS1. Characteristics of living things
2. Differences between plants and animals
3. Organization of life a. Levels of organization of life-Cell Euglena paramecium)-Tissue (Hydra)-Organ (Onion bulb, the heart of a cow)-System (e.g. Digestive system, excretory system).
b. Complexity of organization in higher organisms and disadvantages
3Classification of living things 1. Kingdoms Monera, Protista.1. Kingdom Monera prokaryotes) single celled, motile or non-motile organisms. No definite nucleus, Bacteria and blue-green algae make up this kingdom.
2. Kingdom Protista Eukaryotes) Single celled motile or non-motile organisms complex cell structure with definite nucleus e.g. Chlamydomonas and amoeba
 Classification of living things 1. Kingdoms Monera Prostista and fungi, Plantae and Animalia1. Kingdom fungi Eukaryotes): Mainly non-motile organisms composed of hyphae containing nuclei e.g. moulds, mushrooms and Rhizopus.
2. Kingdom plantae (Eukaryotes) mainly called non-motile organisms which contain chlorophyll that enable them to carry out photosynthesis e.g. Ferns, pines oil palms, and yam plants.
3. Kingdom Animalia (Eukaryotes) many celled, motile organisms that feed on other organism e.g. corals worms, frogs, snakes, monkeys and cows
4The Cell1. Cell as a living unit of organism.
2. Forms in which living things exist: i. independent: amoeba, paramecium, euglena etc. ii. as colony, e.g. volvox iii. as filament e.g. spirogyra.
3. Cell structure: i. the cell theory ii. cell structure and function of cell components. iii. differences and similarities between plant and animal cells.
5The Cell and its environment1. Diffusion i. Definition ii. Process iii. Significances
2. Osmosis i. Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane ii. Haemolysis iii. Plasmolysis iv. Osmometer with living material v. Biological significance of these processes.
6Some properties and functions of the cell1. Feeding definition and types i. Micronutrients ii. Macronutrients 2. Autotrophy i. Photosynthesis ii. Chemosynthesis
2. Heterotrophy
3. Role of enzymes
4. Excretion
5. Excretory organ cells in living cells. ii. Waste products of metabolic activities of living cells. iii. Forms in which waste products are excreted.
7Some properties and functions of the cell1. Cellular respiration. i. Definition of cellular respiration. ii. Aerobic respiration (catabolism) Krebs cycle. iii. Anaerobic respiration iii. Anaerobic respiration. iv. Energy release during respiration
2. Anabolism- usefulness of food.
8Some properties and functions of the cell cort growth1. Basis of growth cell division (mitosis) enlargement and differentiation ii. Regulation of growth by hormones
2. Cell reactions to its environment ii. Irritability as basic characteristics of the protoplasm iii. Types of responses
9Movement1. Movement i. Cyclosis ii. Organ cells for movement iii. Growth movement as regulated by auxins
10Some properties and functions of the cell continued. reproductionReproductions forms of reproduction a. Asexual i. Fission ii. Budding iii. Vegetative propagation b. Sexual i. Conjugation ii. Fusion of male and female gametes, mitosis, structure and functions of the male and female gametes


SS1 Second Term Scheme of Work for Biology

 TermSecond Term
1Tissues and Supporting Systems1. Skeleton and supporting systems in animals: i. Biological significance ii. Forms e.g. Chitin, cartilages and bones.
2. Types of skeletons i. Hydrostatic skeleton ii. Exo-0skeleton iii. Endo-skeleton
3. Vertebrate skeletons-The skull-Sternum and ribs-Limb girdles-Limbs
4. Bones of the vertebral column
2Tissues and Supporting Systems cont’dDifferent types of supporting tissues in plants:
-location and arrangement of structural components
-functions of skeleton in animals: i. protection ii. support iii. Locomotion
-functions of supporting tissues in plants: i. strength ii. rigidity iii. resistance against the forces of wind and water.
3Nutrition in mammals1. Food substance:
a. Types of food substances i. Carbohydrates ii. Fats and oils iii. Proteins iv. Mineral salts v. Vitamin vi. Water
b. Balanced diet
c. Heterotrophic nutrition-Types of heterotrophic nutrition-Holozoic nutrition-Saprophytic nutrition-Parasitic nutrition
4Nutrition in animals continued feeding mechanism in holozoic1. Feeding mechanism in holozoic organisms: -filter feeding-deposit feeding-fluid feeding
2. Mammalian teeth a. The different types of teeth: i. Incisors ii. Canines iii. Premolars iv. Molars b. Structure of a tooth c. Dental formula d. Adaptations of dentition to mode of nutrition
3. Enzymes a. What are enzymes b. Characteristics of enzymes c. Classification of enzymes d. Importance or enzymes
5Basic Ecological ConceptsEcosystem Component and sizes
1. Ecological concepts–Environment–Biosphere–Lithosphere–Hydrosphere–Atmosphere–Labiates–Niche–Population–Biotic community (biome)–Ecosystem
ii. Component of an ecosystem and sizes–Abiotic, biotic aquatic, terrestrial
6Basic Ecological Concepts cont’d1. Local biotic communities or biomes i. Tropical rainforest ii. Southern guinea savanna iii. Northern guinea savanna iv. Sahel savanna v. desert vi. Swamp/estuarine regions
2. Major biomes of the world: i. tropical forest ii. savanna iii. desert iv. shrub v. afro-alpine vi. swamp
7Basic Ecological Concepts cont’d1. Population studies by sampling method. i. Population size ii. Dominance iii. Density iv. Factors that affect population
2. Ecological factor aquatic, terrestrial, and factors common to habitats. Importance of ecological factors to population of animals and plants.
3. Relationship between soil types and water holding effect of soil on vegetation
4. Simple measurement of ecological factors a. Physical factors b. Edaphic factors ii. Measuring instruments
8Function in ecosystem1. Autotrophy and Heterotrophy i. Producers (autotrophs) ii. Consumer heterotrophs) iii. Aquatic and terrestrial examples of producers and consumers
2. Trophic levels a. Energy relationship concepts of i. Food chain ii. Food web b. Noncyclic nature of chemical energy transfer c. Nutrient cycle
3. Energy flow i. Food/energy relationship in aquatic and terrestrial environments. ii. Pyramid of energy/numbers iii. Nature of energy flow as describe by food chains
9Energy transformation in nature1. Energy loss in the ecosystem i. Solar radiations its intake and loss at the earth surface ii. Energy loss in the biosphere iii. Measure of primary production e.g. the amount and rate of energy fixation.
2. Laws of thermodynamics
-First law
-Second law
-application of both laws to ecological phenomena
10Relevance of biology to agriculture1. Classification of plants i. Botanical classification e.g. algae, spermatophytes) ii. Agricultural classification e.g. fibers, latex) iii. Classification based on life cycles e.g. annuals, perennials)
2. Effects of agricultural activities on ecological systems i. Bush clearing/burning ii. Tillage iii. Fertilizer/herbicide and the effects iv. Effects of different types of farming on ecological system
3. Pests and diseases of agricultural importance i. Knowledge of pest types, life cycle and control) ii. Diseases (types control)
 Relevance of biology to agriculture continued1. Food production and storage i. Ways of improving crop yield ii. Causes of wastage methods of preserving and storing food
2. Population growth and food supply reproduction and population growth
3. Relationship between availability of food and human population effects of food storage.
4. Government efforts to increase food production e.g. agricultural revolution


SS1 Third Term Scheme of Work for Biology

 TermThird Term
1Micro-organisms around us1. Micro-organisms in air and water i. Group of microorganisms: bacterial, viruses, some algae protozoa, and some fungi ii. concept of culturing
2. Identification of micro-organisms in i. Air ii. Pond water iii. River iv. Stream
3. Micro-organisms in our bodies and food: ways in which and places through which micro-organisms enter our bodies
4. Carriers of microorganisms. Examples of carriers of microorganisms, and location of micro-organisms in carriers. Types microorganisms
2Micro-organisms in action1. Growth of microorganisms’ ways of measuring the growth of micro-organisms
2. Beneficial effects of the microorganisms e.g. in natural medicine and industries
3. Harmful effects of some microbes: i. Types of disease-causing microorganisms ii. Disease caused by micro-organisms iii. Ways in which disease-causing Pathogenic) microorganisms spread and are transmitted
3Towards better health1. Control of harmful micro-organisms: control of disease-causing microorganisms, high temperature, antibiotics high salinity antiseptics dehydration.
2. Vectors i. Definition ii. Ways of controlling vectors
3. Student’s health maintenance of good health
a. Importance to Community
b. Ways in which communities do these i. Refuse disposals ii. Sewage disposal iii. Protection of water iv. Protection of food v. Control of diseases vi. Health organization
4Aquatic habitat (marine habitat)1. Characteristics of a marine habitat
2. The major zones i. Inter-tidal zone ii. Littoral zone ii. Oceanic zone
3. Distribution of the organism in the habitat
4. Adaptive features of marine organisms e.g. bladder for floating, hold fast for attachment.
 Estuarine habitat1. Characteristics of estuarine habitat
2. Types of estuary
3. Distribution of the plants and animals in estuarine habitat.
4. Adaptive features of plants and animals in estuarine habitat
5Fresh water habitat1. Characteristics of freshwater habitat
2. Types of fresh water i. Stagnant ones ii. Running water
3. Adaptive features of freshwater organisms
4. Freshwater organisms
6Terrestrial habitat 1.marsh1. Characteristics of a marsh
2. Formation of marshes
3. Types of marshes
4. Plants and animals that live in marshes
5. Adaptive features of these plants and animal
 Forest1. Characteristics of a forest
2. Strata in the forest
3. Distribution of plants and animals that inhabit a forest
4. Adaptive features of the plants and animals
7Arid lands1. Characteristics of arid lands
2. Types of arid lands
3. Distribution of the organism in the habit.
4. Some adaptation of organisms to arid lands i. Water conservation in plants and animals ii. Body temperature regulation in plants and animals
8Grassland1. Characteristics of grassland
2. Types of grassland
3. Distribution of plants and animals in a grassland
4. Some adaptations of grassland communities i. Air-conditioned rest by termites ii. Thick barks e.g. Baobab and palms iii. Lead fall iv. Underground stems e.g. Grasses
9Reproduction in unicellular organisms and invertebrates1. Reproduction in Amoeba by asexual reproduction i. Binary fission ii. Multiple fission
2. Reproduction in paramecium by: i. Asexual reproduction ii. Sexual reproduction
3. Reproduction in spirogyra by: i. Asexual or vegetative reproduction ii. Sexual reproduction or conjugation
4. Reproduction in the earthworm-Sexual reproduction only
10Reproduction in unicellular organisms and invertebrates cont’d1. Reproduction in cockroach i. Fertilization in internal ii. Exhibits incomplete metamorphosis
2. Reproduction in housefly i. Fertilization is internal ii. Exhibits complete metamorphosis
3. Reproduction in snail i. Fertilization is internal ii. Lay eggs that hatch into young snails


Recommended Biology Textbooks for Senior Secondary School 1

The recommended Biology textbooks for SSS1 include but are not limited to the following:

  • Classic Practical Biology for Senior Secondary Schools 

        Nneka N. Ekechukwu 

        Metropolitan Publishers Ltd SS 1-3 

  • New Comprehensive Practical Biology with Alternative to Practicals and Specimen questions and answers for West African Senior Secondary schools 

        Emedo A. B. C et al 

        Think-Tank Educational Publishers SS 1-3 

  • New Comprehensive Practical Biology with Alternative to Practicals and Specimen Questions and Answers for West African Senior Secondary Schools 1 by B. C Obidiwe 

        Mid-Field Publishers Ltd SS 1-3 

  • Modern Biology for Senior Secondary Schools (Based on the new NERDC, Curriculum for secondary schools) 

        Lucy .I. Akunwa, J.B.C Obidiwe 

        Africana First Publishers Plc SS 1-3  

  • Complete revision Biology for Senior Secondary Schools 

        Ngozi E.  Agbasimalo PhD 


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