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WAEC Food and Nutrition Syllabus

Get straight A’s when you download and study with this Food and Nutrition Syllabus for WAEC.

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Writing Food and Nutrition in WAEC Exams

If your food and nutrition exams are fast approaching and you are confused about what to read for the exams.

Then this article is for you.

This WAEC syllabus for Food and Nutrition tells you all you need to know about the upcoming exams. From the topics to the objectives down to the recommended textbooks, you can read with. It’s a valuable resource for you and your classmates so do well to share this with them.

Reading this syllabus and practicing your past questions will give you an edge over other candidates who focus on just their school notes and materials.

Marking Guide

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2, and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be composite paper and will be taken in one sitting.  

PAPER 1: This will comprise sixty multiple-choice questions, all of which are to be answered within 1 hour for 60 marks.

PAPER 2: This will comprise six essay questions out of which candidates will be required to answer four. The paper will carry 40 marks and will last 1 hour and 15 minutes.

PAPER 3: This will be a practical test of 3 hours duration. It will carry 100 marks and will be conducted by a visiting examiner.

Food and Nutrition Syllabus for WAEC Exams

NUTRITION & HEALTHi. Introduction to Foods and Nutrition
(a) Meaning
(b) Basic knowledge of Nutrition
(c) Importance of Human Nutrition
(d) Factors affecting Foods and Nutrition
(e) Food Habits

ii. Careers associated with Foods and Nutrition.
(a) Careers associated with Foods and Nutrition
(b) Factors that influence career choices
(c) Characteristics required for Foods and Nutrition careers

iii. Basic Food Nutrients
(a) The nutrients and their nutritive values
(b) Functions of the different nutrients
(c) Sources of the different nutrients
(d) Dietary deficiencies
(e) Metabolism, (digestion and absorption of foods carbohydrate, protein and fat)
(f) Knowledge and use of food composition table
(g) Food tests: simple physical and chemical tests
of food stuffs to detect presence of nutrients
in foods e.g. proteins, fats and carbohydrates

iv. Meal Management
a) Meal Planning
(i) Meal planning terms
(ii) Reasons for planning meals
(iii) Factors in planning meals
(iv) General principles of meal planning
(v) Meal patterns
b) Special Nutritional Needs
(i) Nutritional needs for different groups e.g. pregnant, lactating
mothers, infants and children, adolescents, adults and the
aged, vegetarians.
(ii) Planning meals for people in health condition e.g. HIV &
AIDS, invalids, convalescents, overweight, underweight,
hypertension, diabetes etc
(a) Types of kitchen e.g. traditional, modern, institutional.
(b) Planning different types of kitchen.
(c) Factors to consider when planning.
(d) Cleaning agents and abrasives (commercial and local)

ii. Kitchen equipment and tools
(a) Classes and types of equipment
(b) Selection, use, care and storage of large and small equipment,
fixtures and appliances

iii. Safety in the kitchen
(a) Types of kitchen accidents
(b) Causes and prevention of accidents
(c) Content and use of first aid box
(d) Simple first aid treatment

iv. Sanitation in the kitchen
(a) Personal Hygiene
(b) Kitchen Hygiene e.g. general cleaning, waste disposal, pests and
pest control
(c) Food hygiene e.g. handling of foods, food borne diseases, food sanitation laws
FOOD COMMODITIESi. Animal and animal products – milk and milk products e.g Cheese, yoghurt, eggs, meat, poultry, fish etc.
a) Kinds/types and structure

ii. Cereals/grains
(a) Kinds and forms
(b) Importance of cereals and grains:
– versatility
– thickening
– cheap source of energy/good source of roughage

iii. Fruits and vegetables
(a) Classification of fruits/Classification of vegetables.
(b) Structure, nutritive value and storage.
(c) Important of fruits and vegetables in the diet, etc

iv. Legumes and oily seeds
(a) Classification of legumes, oily seeds
(b) Importance of legumes and oily seeds in the diet, etc.

v. Fats and oils
(a) Kinds and classification
– vegetable fats and oils
– animal fats and oils
(b) Uses in diet
(c) Uses in the body
(d) Health implications of fats and oils

vi. Starchy roots and plantain
(a) Types of starchy roots
(b) Types of plantain
(c) Types of dishes
(a) Meaning of food spoilage
(b) Causes and agents of food spoilage

ii. Food preservation
(a) Meaning and importance of preservation
(b) General principles underlying food preservation
(c) Methods of food preservation

iii. Food storage
(a) Meaning and importance of food storage
(b) Storage of perishable and non perishable foods
(c) Storage space and equipment e.g. refrigeration, deep
freezer, cupboards, shelves, granaries, barns etc
FOOD PREPARATIONi. Principles underlying cooking
(a) Explanation of the concept of cooking
(b) Reasons for cooking food

ii. Methods of cooking
(a) Moist heat methods e.g. boiling, stewing, steaming etc.
(b) Dry heat methods e.g. baking, roasting, grilling, frying etc.
(c) Effects of heat on different food commodities e.g. animal
products, cereals and grains, fats and oil etc

iii. Transfer of heat
Methods of heat transfer and meaning
– Convection – liquid, gases
– Radiation – space
– conduction – solid metal

iv. Cooking terms
Explanation of cooking terms

v. Food additives
(a) Definitions
(b) Types of food additives
(c) Functions of additives
(d) Selection and use of additives
(e) Food adulteration

vi. Flour Cookery and Confectionery
a) Types of flour
•Types of flour
•Ingredients in flour
•Uses of flour
b) Basic ingredients in Flour cookery
– Flour, fat, sugar, eggs
c) Raising agents
•Types of raising agents, i.e., steam,
carbon dioxide and air
•Sources:- boiling liquid – steam,
baking powder – carbon dioxide
whisking – air
d) Batters and doughs
• Batters (Types, Uses of batters. Dishes using batter)
• Doughs ( biscuits, classification, rubbed in, creamed, whisked, melted, sponge mixtures)
e) Cakes (rubbed in, creamed, whisked, melted, sponge mixtures)
f) Pastries
•Types of Pastries (Shortcrust, suet, flaky, etc.)
•Principles underlying pastry making
•Pastry dishes e.g. turn over; jam tartlets, cornish pasties, etc.
g) Yeast Mixtures
•Ways of preparing yeast mixture
•Important points in preparing yeast mixture
•Yeast dishes – bread loaves, bread rolls, doughnut
h) Cake Decoration icing
•Types of icing e.g. butter icing, royal icing
•Uses of icing
•Preparation of icing
•Using royal icing and butter icing
i. Classification of beverages
(a) Non-alcoholic beverages (coffee&tea, cocoa drink, milk & egg drinks, fruit juices & fruit drinks, beef tea & lemon grass)
(b) Alcoholic (beer, wine)

ii. Importance of beverages
a) Nutritive value

iii. Principles underlining the preparation of a beverage
a) Tea, coffee, cocoa, etc
CONVENIENCE FOODSi. Types of convenience foods

ii. Selection and uses of convenience foods

iii. Advantages and disadvantages of using convenience foods

iv. Preparation of dishes using convenience foods

ii. Importance of using leftover goods

iii. Rules/guidelines for using leftover foods

iv. Rechauffé dishes

9. Festive Dishes/Special Occasion Dishes
i. Explanation

ii. Occasions for festive dishes

iii. Types of festive dishes/special occasion dishes

iv. Preparation of festive dishes/special occasion dishes

ii. Occasions for festive dishes

iii. Types of festive dishes/special occasion dishes

iv. Preparation of festive dishes/special occasion dishes
(a) Explanation
(b) Types of parties
(c) Occasions for parties
(d) Points to consider when selecting types of parties
(e) Factors that contribute to the success of parties

ii. Table setting and etiquette
(a) Explanation e.g. table setting, cover, etc
(b) Setting tables and tray for different meal and occasion
(c) Table appointments
(d) Table manners/etiquette

iii. Meal Service Style
(a) Types of meal service
– Informal meal service
– formal meal service
(b) Factors determining choice of service styles
types of party
(c) Foods for special occasions e. g. birthday, naming
ceremonies, weddings etc.
(e) Factors that contribute to the success of parties
EXPERIMENTAL COOKERYi. Research into Local dishes and Drinks
(a) Importance of research in Foods and Nutrition
(b) Collection of information (data)
(c) Research into local dishes
(d) Development of new recipes
(e) Improving existing recipes based on methods of preparation,
Nutritive value, time and energy use and service/

ii. Experiments
(a) Using fruits e.g. passion fruit, samia, royal palm fruit
(b) Other types of flour e.g. root, cereal and legumes, etc
CONSUMER EDUCATIONi. Consumer Education
(a) Meaning and principles
(b) consumer agents

ii. Food Budgeting
(a) Explanation
(b) Factors to consider when budgeting

iii. Food Purchasing
(a) Guidelines for shopping for food
(b) Guidelines for bulk purchasing
(c) Reasons for buying in bulk
(d) Advantages and disadvantages of bulk purchasing
SELF – EMPLOYMENTi. Setting up and managing a catering enterprise
(a) Explanation of terms
– entrepreneur
– entrepreneurship
– enterprise
(b) Characteristics of an entrepreneur
(c) Advantages and disadvantages of an entrepreneur
(d) Setting up a catering entrepreneur
(e) Some catering enterprises
(f) Factors contributing to the success of an enterprise

ii. Work ethics
(a) Explanation of work ethics
(b) Good work ethics

iii. Packaging
(a) Explanation of Food Packaging
(b) Reasons why food is packaged
(c) Qualities of packaging materials
(d) Types of packaging materials

Recommended WAEC Food and Nutrition Textbooks

Frequently Asked Questions About WAEC Food and Nutrition Exam

What topics should I focus on the most while studying for the Food and Nutrition exam?

All topics outlined in the syllabus above are important and should be given equal attention.

Are there any practical aspects of the exam, such as cooking or food preparation tasks?

Yes, paper 3 which is the practical section will involve you preparing a select list of meals and you will be graded by an external invigilator.

What are the most challenging areas of the Food and Nutrition syllabus, and how can I prepare effectively for them?

I don’t think there are any challenging areas in the syllabus. All you need to do is read and understand the topics in the syllabus before the exam and practice past questions.


How will my final score be calculated in the exams?

For paper 1 which is the Objective section, you will required to answer 60 questions and will be scored over 60

For the theory section, you will be scored over 40.

When these two marks are added, it’ll make 100%.

Paper 3 which is the practical section will be graded over 100% as well.

After all is done, your mark will be divided into 2 to get your final grade.

What happens if I don't understand a question?

If you’re unsure about a question, skip it and move on to other questions you understand and can answer. Then come back to those you don’t understand and think about it some more. Don’t spend too much time on a question that is confusing you. It’s better to focus on questions that you are more confident about.

What are some common mistakes to avoid during my Food and Nutrition exam?

Some common mistakes include rushing through the exam, not reading questions carefully, and needing to manage your time well. Remember to cross-check your work and make your writing legible enough.



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