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The WAEC Physics syllabus is a must-read for anyone writing Physics in the upcoming WAEC examinations.

Having a well detailed Physics syllabus is necessary for your exam preparation as it will serve as a guide for you so you know the topics to focus on for your exams

You should see this syllabus as a form of expo because this is WAEC letting you know the topics you need to know before your examination

The exam will have a total of 3 papers; Papers 1 and 2 which are the Objective and Theory sections will be taken in one day and paper 3 which is the practical section will be taken alone on a separate day. It is often said that once you do well in your practical exam, your result will be good but we would advise you to aim to score well in all 3 papers.

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2, and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 will be taken in one sitting.

**Paper 1**

Will consist of fifty multiple-choice questions and will last for 1 hour and 15 minutes and carry 50 marks.

**Paper 2**

Will consist of two sections, Sections A and B lasting 1 hour 30 minutes and carrying 60 marks.

•Section A

Will comprise seven short-structured questions and you will be required to answer any five questions for a total of 15 marks.

•Section B

Will comprise five essay questions out of which you will be required to answer any three for 45 marks.

**Paper 3**

Will be a practical test for school candidates or an alternative to a practical work paper for private candidates

Each version of the paper will comprise three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any two in 2 hours 30 minutes for 50 marks.

WAEC Physics SYLLABUS | ||

SN | TOPICS | OBJECTIVES |

PART I: INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME | ||

1 | CONCEPT OF MATTER | |

2 | FUNDAMENTAL AND DERIVED QUANTITIES |
i. Fundamental quantities and units ii. Derived quantities and units |

3 | POSITION, DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT |
i. Concept of position as a location of point-rectangular coordinates. ii. Measurement of distance iii. Concept of direction as a way of locating a point–bearing iv. The distinction between distance and displacement |

4 | MASS AND WEIGHT |
i. The distinction between mass and weight |

5 | TIME |
i. Concept of time as an interval between physical events ii. Measurement of time |

6 | FLUID AT REST |
i. Volume, density and relative density ii. Pressure in fluids iii. Equilibrium of bodies iv. Archimedes’ principle v. Law of flotation |

7 | MOTION |
i. Types of motion: Random, rectilinear, translational, Rotational, circular, orbital, spin, Oscillatory. ii. Relative motion iii. Cause of motion iv. Types of force: a) Contact force b) Non-contact force(field force) v. Solid friction vi. Viscosity (friction in fluids) vii. Simple ideas of circular motion |

8 | SPEED AND VELOCITY |
i. Concept of speed as a change of distance with time ii. Concept of velocity as a change of displacement with time iii. Uniform/non-uniform speed/velocity iv. Distance/displacement-time graph |

9 | PERCENTAGES | Simple interest, commission, discount, depreciation, profit and loss, compound interest, hire purchase, and percentage error. |

10 | FINANCIAL ARITHMETIC |
(i) Depreciation/ Amortization (ii) Annuities (iii) Capital Market Instruments |

11 | VARIATION | Direct, inverse, partial, and joint variations. |

PART II: ALGEBRAIC PROCESSES | ||

16 | ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS |
(i) Formulating algebraic expressions from given situations ( ii ) Evaluation of algebraic expressions |

17 | SIMPLE OPERATIONS ON ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS |
( i ) Expansion (ii ) Factorization (iii) Binary Operations |

18 | SOLUTIONS OF LINEAR EQUATION |
(i) Linear equations in one variable (ii) Simultaneous linear equations in two variables. |

19 | CHANGE OF A SUBJECT OF FORMULA/RELATION |
(i) Change of subject of a formula/relation (ii) Substitution |

20 | QUADRATIC EQUATIONS |
(i) Solution of quadratic equations (ii) Forming quadratic equation with given roots. (iii) Application of solution of quadratic equation in practical problems. |

21 | GRAPHS OF LINEAR & QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS |
(i) Interpretation of graphs, coordinate of points, table of values, drawing quadratic graphs and obtaining roots from graphs. ( ii ) Graphical solution of a pair of equations of the form: y = ax\(^{2}\) + bx + c and y = mx + k * (iii) Drawing tangents to curves to determine the gradient at a given point. |

22 | LINEAR INEQUALITIES |
(i) Solution of linear inequalities in one variable and representation on the number line. ∗(ii) Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. ∗(iii) Graphical solution of simultaneous linear inequalities in two variables. |

23 | ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS |
Operations on algebraic fractions with: (i) Monomial denominators ( ii ) Binomial denominators |

24 | FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS | Types of Functions |

PART III: MENSURATION | ||

25 | LENGTHS & PERIMETERS |
(i) Use of Pythagoras theorem, sine and cosine rules to determine lengths and distances. (ii) Lengths of arcs of circles, perimeters of sectors and segments. (iii) Longitudes and Latitudes. |

26 | AREAS |
(i) Triangles and special quadrilaterals – rectangles, parallelograms and trapeziums (ii) Circles, sectors and segments of circles. (iii) Surface areas of cubes, cuboids, cylinder, pyramids, righttriangular prisms, cones andspheres. |

27 | VOLUMES |
(i) Volumes of cubes, cuboids, cylinders, cones, right pyramids and spheres. (ii) Volumes of similar solids |

PART IV: PLANE GEOMETRY | ||

28 | ANGLES |
(i) Angles at a point add up to 360°. (ii) Adjacent angles on a straight line are supplementary. (iii) Vertically opposite angles are equal. |

28 | ANGLES & INTERCEPTS AT PARALLEL LINES |
(i) Alternate angles are equal. (ii)Corresponding angles are equal. (iii)Interior opposite angles are supplementary (iv) Intercept theorem. |

29 | TRIANGLES AND POLYGONS |
(i) The sum of the angles of a triangle is 2 right angles. (ii) The exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the two interior opposite angles. (iii) Congruent triangles. ( iv ) Properties of special triangles – Isosceles, equilateral, right-angled, etc (v) Properties of special quadrilaterals – parallelogram, rhombus, square, rectangle, trapezium. ( vi )Properties of similar triangles. ( vii ) The sum of the angles of a polygon (viii) Property of exterior angles of a polygon. (ix) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. |

30 | CIRCLES |
(i) Chords. (ii) The angle which an arc of a circle subtends at the centre of the circle is twice that which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. (iii) Any angle subtended at the circumference by a diameter is a right angle. (iv) Angles in the same segment are equal. (v) Angles in opposite segments are supplementary. (vi)Perpendicularity of tangent and radius. (vii)If a tangent is drawn to a circle and from the point of contact a chord is drawn, each angle which this chord makes with the tangent is equal to the angle in the alternate segment. |

31 | CONSTRUCTION |
(i) Bisectors of angles and line segments (ii) Line parallel or perpendicular to a given line. (iii )Angles e.g. 90°, 60°, 45°, 30°, and an angle equal to a given angle. (iv) Triangles and quadrilaterals from sufficient data. |

32 | LOCI |
Knowledge of the loci listed below and their intersections in 2 dimensions. (i) Points at a given distance from a given point. (ii) Points equidistant from two given points. (iii)Points equidistant from two given straight lines. (iv)Points at a given distance from a given straight line |

PART V: COORDINATE GEOMETRY OF STRAIGHT LINES | ||

33 | CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY OF STRAIGHT LINES |
(i) Concept of the x-y plane. (ii) Coordinates of points on the x-y plane. |

PART VI: TRIGONOMETRY | ||

34 | SINE, COSINE AND TANGENT OF AN ANGLE |
(i) Sine, Cosine and Tangent of acute angles. (ii) Use of tables of trigonometric ratios. (iii) Trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° and 60°. (iv) Sine, cosine and tangent of angles from 0° to 360°. (v)Graphs of sine and cosine. (vi) Graphs of trigonometric ratios |

35 | ANGLES IF ELEVATION & DEPRESSION |
(i) Calculating angles of elevation and depression. (ii) Application to heights and distances. |

36 | BEARINGS |
(i) Bearing of one point from another. (ii) Calculation of distances and angles |

PART VI: INTRODUCTORY CALCULUS | ||

40 | INTRODUCTORY CALCULUS |
(i) Differentiation of algebraic functions. (i) Differentiation of algebraic functions. (ii) Integration of simple Algebraic functions. |

PART VII: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY | ||

41 | STATISTICS |
(i) Frequency distribution ( ii ) Pie charts, bar charts, histograms and frequency polygons (iii) Mean, median and mode for both discrete and grouped data. (iv) Cumulative frequency curve (Ogive). (v) Measures of Dispersion: range, semi inter-quartile/interquartile range, variance, mean deviation and standard deviation. |

42 | PROBABILITY |
(i) Experimental and theoretical probability. (ii) Addition of probabilities for mutually exclusive and independent events. (iii) Multiplication of probabilities for independent events. |

PART VIII: VECTORS & TRANSFORMATION | ||

43 | VECTORS IN A PLANE |
(i) Vectors as a directed line segment. (ii) Cartesian components of a vector (iii) Magnitude of a vector, equal vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, zero vector, parallel vectors, multiplication of a vector by scalar. |

44 | TRANSFORMATION IN THE CARTESIAN PLANE |
(i) Reflection of points and shapes in the Cartesian Plane. (ii) Rotation of points and shapes in the Cartesian Plane. (iii) Translation of points and shapes in the Cartesian Plane. |

1. Ike, E. E (2014) Essential Principles of Physics, Jos ENIC Publishers.

2. Ike, E. E (2014) Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, Jos, ENIC Publishers.

3. Nelson, M (1977) Fundamentals of Physics, Great Britain: Hart Davis Education.

4. Nelson, M and Parker … (1989) Advanced Level Physics (Sixth Edition), Heinemann.

5. Okeke, P. N and Anyakoha, M. W (2000) Senior Secondary School Physics, Lagos, Pacific Printers.

6. Olumuyionwa A. and Ogunkoya O. O (1992) Comprehensive Certificate Physics, Ibadan: University Press Plc.

What topics are usually covered in the WAEC Physics exam?

Some topics you could see in your exams include Fundamental and derived quantities and units, Mass and Weight, Archimedes principle, etc. A full list of all the topics in the syllabus can be seen above.

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How many papers are there in the WAEC Physics exam, and what are their formats?

The exam will have 3 papers. Papers 1 & 2 are the Objective and Theory sections and will be taken in one day. Paper 3 is the Practical exam which could be taken before or after the first two papers.

What is the duration of each paper in the WAEC Physics exam?

Paper 1 will last for 1 hr minutes, Paper 2 will last for 1 hr 30 minutes and Paper 3 will last for 2 hrs 30 minutes.

Are there any practicals or experiments included in the WAEC Physics exam?

Yes, there will be practical exams but they won’t be on the same day as the theory & objective section.

How should I prepare for the WAEC Physics exam to score well?

Practice, practice, practice. Study the syllabus, recommended textbooks, notes, and past questions together. You can also ask your teacher or tutor questions on topics you don’t understand.

Can I use a calculator or any other aids during the WAEC Physics exam?

Yes, you will be given an official calculator by the West African Examination Council(WAEC). This is the only calculator and aid you are expected to use during the exam.

Are there any specific formulas or equations I should memorize for the WAEC Physics exam?

You should be familiar with all the formulas, equations, and Standard Units associated with every topic in the above syllabus.

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