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WAEC Yoruba Syllabus

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Writing Yoruba in WAEC Exams

This syllabus is your number 1 guide if you will be writing Yoruba in the upcoming WAEC examinations and you want to be one step ahead of your peers.

To perform well, you should be able to speak, read and write Yoruba to a certain level. Familiarize yourself with the Yoruba sound system, grammatical structures and other features of the Yoruba language like common cultural and traditional practices.

This is why you have this syllabus to provide you with the necessary information needed to do well in your examinations. This and your past questions booklet is a must have for all intending candidates.

Marking Guide

The examination will consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2. It will test the following aspects of Yoruba Language: comprehension, composition, sound system, grammar and translation. It will also test selected texts of oral and written literature as well as Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation, Customs and Institutions. The rubrics shall be written in Yoruba.

PAPER 1 shall contain 60 multiple-choice objective questions on Language, Literature and Culture. The paper shall have three sections, Section A, B and C.

Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 60 marks. The questions shall be distributed as follows:



Section C: CULTURE

Yoruba Syllabus for WAEC Exams

 WAEC Yoruba Syllabus

Candidates are advised to write 300 words and spend not more than 45 minutes on this section. The essay will be any of the following types:

(i) Narrative

(ii) Descriptive

(iii) Argumentative

(iv) Expository

(v) Dialogue

(vi) Debate

(vii) Letter writing

Sound System

Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two to be set.

Areas to cover include:

(i) Vowels, Consonants and Syllabic nasal

(a) their production in terms of place and manner

(b) their basic phonetic and phonemic classification

(ii) Syllable structure

(iii) Sound processes, e.g. vowel harmony assimilation elision

(iv) Sound system aspect of the orthography

(v) Tones and tone notation


Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two questions to be made available.

Areas to cover are:

i. Word structure and word formation

ii. Numerals: basic and derived

iii. Word classes: nouns, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc

iv. Grammatical categories: subject, object, complement, predicate, number, person, tense,

aspect, mood, etc.

v. Phrases and clauses

vi.The structure and type of sentences.
BLITERATUREThis section is made up of Oral Literature and Written Literature.

Oral Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Oral Literature, there will be 3 set books covering the different genres. 1 question will be set from each set book and candidates will be required to answer any 1 of the 3 questions.

Written Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Written Literature, there will be three set books covering the different genres. One question will be set from each set book and candidates will be required to answer any one of the three questions.
CCULTUREThis section will consist of questions on customs and institutions. Two questions will be set and candidates will be required to answer any one of them.

Areas to cover will include:


(i) Make-up and adornments

(ii) In-door and out-door games

(iii) Pregnancy and its care

(iv) Naming

(v) Home training: greetings, respect for superiors, cleanliness, tolerance, integrity, hard work, etc.

(vi) Yoruba foods

(vii) Non-verbal communication

(viii) Funerals: traditional and modern methods

(ix) Inheritance: traditional and modern methods.


(i) Traditional occupations

(ii) Marriage

(iii) Politics: family structure, age grades, chieftaincy, Obaship, etc.

(iv) Child care

(v) Ancestors

(vi) Yoruba beliefs about Olodumare (God), deities/divinities, other invisible forces, etc.

(vii) Modern religions: Islam, Christianity, etc.

(viii) Economy: adverts, money lending, cooperative efforts, etc.

Recommended WAEC Yoruba Textbooks

  1. Abiodun, Jibola Aroko Ati Aayan, Ogbufo. Majab (Ilorin) (1996)
  2. Owolabi, K. publications Ijinle Itupale Ede Yoruba Extension (Ibadan)(1989)
  3. Bamgbose, A: (1991) Press Fonoloji Ati Girama Yoruba.



  1. Ojo, Olagoke: (2005) Ijapa Tiroko Oko Yannibo  Longman (Lagos)


  1. Abimbola, Wande: (2004) Awon Oju Odu University Press Mereerindinlogun (Ibadan) (ppi-xxxi; 52 – 96)


  1. Ogunniran, L: (2007) Eegun Alare Macmillan (Lagos)



  1. Eso-Oluborode, Sunday: Olorunsogo  Sumob Publishers (1994) (Osogbo)


  1. Olayiwola, Ademola: Akowe ko wura Extension Publications (2007) (Ibadan)


  1. Awe, Debo: (2004) Apoti Alakara Elyon Pulibshers (Ilesa) CULTURE
  2. Adeoye, C.L.: (1979)Asa Ati Ise Yoruba University Press (Ibadan)
  3. Olajubu, O. (1978)  Iwe Asa Ibile Yoruba Longman (Lagos)
  4. Daramola, A. ati Jeje. Asa Ati Orisa Onibon-Oje (Ibadan)

Frequently Asked Questions About WAEC Yoruba Exam

How many papers are there in the Yoruba WAEC exam, and what are their durations?

There are two papers in the WAEC Yoruba exam. Paper 1 which is the objective section will last for 1hr and paper 2 which is the theory section will last 2 hours.

What should I do on the day of the exam to perform well?

Stay calm and pay attention to the instructions. Do not panic whenever you see a question you don’t know. When you get confused about a question, raise your hand and ask the invigilator for clarifications.

How can I create a study schedule to cover all the syllabus topics?

Draw up a reading timetable for all the subjects you will be taking in the WAEC exams.

What is the minimum score required to pass the WAEC Yoruba exam?

The minimum score which will give you a C6 grade is 50%. Anything less than 50% and you have a D which could affect your chances of getting admission to the university.

How deep should my understanding be for each topic?

You should be able to understand each topic so well that you can apply them to your daily life.

How can I prepare for the WAEC Yoruba exam?

Practice, practice, practice. Study the syllabus, recommended textbooks, notes, andpast questions together. You can also ask your teacher or tutor questions on topics you don’t understand 


Are there any specific topics that are heavily tested in the exam?

All the topics in the syllabus above are important and you will be tested on them.



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