SSS3 Biology Scheme of Work

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About SSS3 Biology Scheme of Work

Biology, the science of life and living organisms offers deep insights into the natural world and its processes. In this final year of secondary school, SSS3 students learn about the complexities of life at various levels, from molecular biology and genetic inheritance to the principles of evolution and ecosystem dynamics. They also study the intricate systems that sustain human life.

The Lagos State Unified Scheme of Work for SSS3 is thoughtfully structured to provide a thorough understanding of advanced biological topics. This scheme of work covers a broad range of subjects, including genetics, evolution, ecology, and human physiology, all of which are vital for students’ academic growth and practical knowledge.

The  Lagos State Unified Scheme of Work places a strong emphasis on practical skills, encouraging students to conduct experiments and make observations, thus fostering scientific thinking and problem-solving abilities.

The significance of SSS3 Biology is immense, particularly in relation to the WASSCE. A solid grasp of this subject is essential for achieving excellent scores in the examination, which is a stepping stone to higher education and numerous career opportunities particularly for students aiming for careers in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, environmental science, biotechnology, and health-related fields

Assessment Guide

SSS3 students in Nigeria are assessed in Biology through continuous assessments and the WASSCE. Continuous assessments include class tests, assignments, oral presentations, projects, and class participation. The WASSCE consists of multiple-choice questions, essays, and practicals. These assessments evaluate a range of skills, ensuring holistic evaluation, skill development, preparation for higher education and careers, and identification of areas for improvement.

SSS3 First Term Scheme of Work for Biology

 Biology Scheme of Work for Senior Secondary Schools 3(SSS3)
 ClassS.S.S 3
 TermFirst Term
1Regulation of internal environment I1. Homeostatic organs. Substance involved in homeostasis.
2. The kidney. The liver. The structure, functions and diseases of both liver and kidney.
3. Effects of kidney and liver diseases and their remedy.
2Regulation of internal environment II1. Endocrine glands. 2. Hormones 3. Glands that secrete each hormone
3Regulation of internal environment IIIThe skin.
1. Structure of the mammalian skin.
2. Functions of the mammalian skin.
3. Care of the mammalian skin.
4Plant hormones.Hormones in plant. (Auxin)
1. Mention plant hormones and their functions.
2. Mention the effect of auxin on lateral bud development, leaf fall and initiation of adventurous roots.
3. Modern application of auxin effect (NAA) with reference to early flowering crop harvest, and weed control (as selective weed kill dicotyledonous plants).
5Nervous coordination I1. The organization of the nervous system,
(a). Central nervous system. (b). Peripheral nervous system.
2. The brain position structure and function.
3. The spinal cord, structure, position and function.
6Nervous coordination II1. P.N.S peripheral nervous system. – Somatic N.S – Autonomic N.S – Parasympathetic N.S – Sympathetic N.S
2. Structure and functions of a neuron- (motor sensory and relay neuron) – class types.
3. Reflex and voluntary actions (Pavlov (1910) experiment on dog, food and bell.
7Sense organs I

Sense organs II
1. Organ of smell a). Mechanism of smelling. b). Adaptation of survival- animal that sniff for hunting e.g. dog- presences of chemoreceptor butterfly (insects) use antenna for sensing its environments.
2. Organ of taste (tongue Taste buds and part played in tasting.
3. Skin: sensory nerve endings, and receptor associated with the skin- touch – Deep pressure – Heat – Pain.
4. Structure of the ear and the function of its various
8The mammalian eye1. Sight: The eye and its various parts. – Functions of the eye. – Part played by light – Image formation – Accommodation
2. Eye defects – Myopic short sightedness – hypermetropic long sightedness) – Astigmatism – Cataract -Night blindness 3. List how eye defects can be corrected
9Ecology of population1. Succession
i. Meaning of succession
ii. Structural changes in species composition, varieties and increase in number
iii. Primary succession
– In aquatic habitat
– In a terrestrial habitat
iv. Secondary succession
– Meaning
– Examples
v. characteristics of a stable community
2. overcrowding: i. Population density
 Ecology of population (cond.)studies vis-vis available resources ii. Importance of factor affecting population e.g. space
3. Relationship between competition and succession
4. Factors that may affect overcrowding e.g. increased mortality, reduced death rate, absence of predator
5. Discuss measures adopted by nature to avoid overcrowding e.g dispersal of seeds and fruits, migration of organism during unfavourable period, territorial behaviour in some organism e.g lizard
6. Discuss the effect of food shortage:
– Competition
– Reproduction
– Emigration
– Increase in mortality rate
10Balance in nature1. Factors affecting a population i. A biotic factors – Light – Space – Heat – Water etc.
ii. Biotic factors e.g. competition intra and inter specific competition) mortality parasite and predator etc.
2. Dynamic equilibrium in nature and factors that maintain it.
3. Density independent factors like availability of food.
4. Density dependent factors e.g. Natural disaster – 3 family planning


SSS3 Second Term Scheme of Work for Biology

 TermSecond Term
1Reproductive system and reproduction in humans1. The reproductive system in male and female (Humans).
i. Functions of its various parts.
ii. Description of the various parts of both male and female reproductive system.
2Female and male gametes in man1. Define fertilization describe the process of fertilization in man
i. the structure of the male sperm cell-spermatozoa
ii. The structure of an ovum (female egg cell).
Fertilization: i. Fusion of gamete ii. Implantation iii. Development of embryo:
– selective exchange between mother and child.
– removal of excretory product from foetus
iv. Survival conditions like food, oxygen, amniotic fluid, placenta umbilical cord.
3Development of new seeds1. Progress of development of zygote in the flowering plant i. Pistil ii. Stem iii. Germ plasma iv. Fertilization
2. Germination of seeds i. Types of germination ii. Conditions necessary for germination.
4Fruits1. Structure of fruits
2. Types of fruits
3. Dispersal of fruits and seeds
4. Agents of dispersal
5Reproductive behavioursCourtship behaviours in animals – Birds – Reptile – Lizard etc. – Courtship behaviour e.g 1. Paring
2. Territoriality
3. Display of colour and body parts
4. Seasonal migration.
6Biology of heredity (genetics)1. Transmissive and expression of characters in organisms
i. Hereditary vacation
ii. Characters that can be transmitted and how they are transmitted
iii. How character manifest from generation to generation
2. Chromosomes
– The basis heredity
i. Location of chromosome ii. Structure iii. Role and processes of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring
3. Probability in genetics
4. Application of the principles of heredity
i. In agriculture
– Improved varieties
– Disease resistant varieties
ii. In medicine – For couples in relation to the sickle cell gene
5. Explain the terms – Cross fertilization – Self fertilization – Out and in breeding using men dehan crosses
7Variation IVariation and evolution
1. Morphological variation (physical appearance) which can be
i. Continuous e.g. Size, height, weight)
ii. Discontinuous e.g. a. Colour of eye, colour of skin, coat of animal,
b. Finger prints
2. Physiological variation
i. Behaviour
ii. Ability to role the tongue
iii. Ability to taste phenythio carbamide (PTC)
iv. Differences in blood groups (A,B,AB, and O)
8Variation II3. Application of variation
i. Crime detection
ii. Blood transfusion
iii.. Determination of paternity

Adaptive colouraton

Structural adaptations for survival
1. The progressive changes in structure and anatomy of organisms using examples of features of organism from water to land
2. Structural adaptation. – Adaptive colouration and their function e.g. camouflage in chameleon, green snake in grass, bright colours of flowers to attract insects during pollination
3. Structural adaptation or obtaining
10Behavioural adaptationi. Food e.g. proboscis for sucking sap in insect
ii. Protection and defense e.g. tortoise in shell.
iii. Mimicry colour for securing mates for regulating body temperature etc.
4. Different castes of termite and bee and the roles they play in their social life
– Theories of evolution according to
i. Charles Darwin ii. Baptist de Lamar,
– law of use and disuse law of inheritance or acquired characteristics (related to the work of August Weidman using the experiment of mating of mice


Recommended Biology Textbooks for Senior Secondary School 3

The recommended Biology textbooks for SSS3 include but are not limited to the following:

  • Classic Practical Biology for Senior Secondary Schools by Nneka N. Ekechukwu – Metropolitan Publishers Ltd SS 1-3 
  • New Comprehensive Practical Biology with Alternative to Practicals and Specimen questions and answers for West African Senior Secondary schools by Emedo A. B. C et al 

       Think-Tank Educational Publishers SS 1-3 

  • New Comprehensive Practical Biology with Alternative to Practicals and Specimen Questions and Answers for West African Senior Secondary Schools by B. C Obidiwe 

        Mid-Field Publishers Ltd SS 1-3 

  • Modern Biology for Senior Secondary Schools (Based on the new NERDC, Curriculum for secondary schools) by Lucy .I. Akunwa, J.B.C Obidiwe 

        Africana First Publishers Plc SS 1-3  

  • Complete revision Biology for Senior Secondary Schools by Ngozi E.  Agbasimalo PhD  KAWURIZ AND MANILAS SS 1-3

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